A unique environment
Solia and fash al-Ballut are the origins of a farmer tradition that we continue doing it at the present.
The current north part in Córdoba province was already known at the end of the eighth century as Fash al-Ballut (Acorn countryside or valley), although Idrisi traveler at the middle of the twelfth century, called this area al-Blatita (Acorn province).
The third element that could trace back the Fash al-Ballut ancient to the first time of al-Andalus is its name, which meant to say there was a holm-oak woodland mentioned in the tenth century by al-Razi or in the twelfth century by al-Idrisi. As well we know who lives in the big Dehesa de la Jara, the holm-oak woodland is the human intervention result in the Mediterranean forest, removing the scrub to enable both the grove and pasture growth, a semi-natural space that is suitable to get an agricultural-livestock land use. The excavations carried out in the town Gozquez (Madrid), which was inhabited during the sixth and seventh century, show that the town surrounding landscape was deforested, with big pastures areas to became a mixed economy, that was supported in both agriculture and livestock: this is a Dehesa exactly.
Angel Riesgo´s excavations carried out between 1921 – 1935 in Los Pedroches, and the following finds, reveal Los Pedroches region had an abundant population during the Visigoth Age; so, if Muslim named these lands as “The acorn plains” is because when they arrived they had found the holm-oaks.
A new name, according to with its geographic essence: Fash al-Ballut, but keeping its limits, was given by the Muslim in the second part of the sixth century, when a territorial constituency according to the Toledo Kingdom interests, cut off from the turbulent Cordoba city, found by the Muslim at their arrival to the Peninsula.
Indeed, livestock farming has been done since historic times, as the best adapted to the natural environment conditions, whose edaphic poverty prevent intensive crops and facilitate developing and creation of holm-oaks woodland. The holm-oak, whose protection and development are documented in the Islamic period, (AL-HIMYARI, 1963:núm. 47) is the most representative and prevalent tree in Los Pedroches, where cork oak, olive trees, acebuches, oak, and other superior tree species kind (mastic, Kermes oak, heather) and a good range of scrubs are born as befits the dominant sclerophyllous laurel forest type in the region.
The Roman region Solia inhabitants, next named Fash all-Ballut and nowadays as Los Pedroches region were excellent farmers and shepherds they knew how to take advance of the resources in the best possible way.
The most ancient sign about Solia existence and its location in the north of the current Cordoba region is a tripoint stone found out at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Villanueva de Córdoba, inside a well called the cows´ well, which is located between the same name lane and Torrecampo Street, 400 meters away from the village approximately. This stone has been well-kept thanks to the fact that it was embedded in the San Miguel Arcangel Villanueva Church main front wall.
The tripoint stone finds out in Villanueva is an oblong granite block with a dimension of 1,25 meters high by 0,35 meters wide it has a Latin legend written which showed it was a landmark stone for the court terms of the three roman cities: Sacili Martialum (It was sited in an area called Alcurrucén, near to the cordobés Pedro Abad town), Epora (nowadays Montoro) and Solia. The legend translation is the following:
Tripoint Stone among sacilenses, eporenses and solienses confirmed by César Augusto Adriano emperor in accordance with Julio Próculo judge sentence.
It is possible the name, Julio Próculo alluded to Cayo Julio Próculo, consul in 109. The tripoint stone erection could be dated to the period 120-121, during the Adriano emperor trip throughout La Bética. According to Padre Fita
The Villanueva de Córdoba tripoint stone is clearly, a worthy monument from three points of view historic, juridical and geographic.
Afterward, in Elvira or Iliberris council appeared Eumancio as one of the signers, a Solia priest, which means the city had achieved town status in that period. However, it is unknown if when Villanueva de Córdoba tripoint stone was erected Solia had a Flavio town status.
Having a look over our land past prove livestock has been the base for its inhabitants in Los Pedroches region. From the first Roman settlements in the known Solia, where many minerals were developed, the animals were managed most suitably and rationally, taking advance of the available resources.
Deep love roots towards the way of rearing our animals make the quality product at the present undoubted. It is inimitable and impossible to plagiarize because many factors have to happen
Rearing and fattening art, the fruits´ quantity and quality, and a unique, peculiar, and different breed, “Torbiscal variety” adapted to the familiar and professional management, a farmers’ family since time immemorial.